Database management is the system for managing information that supports the business operations of an organization. It involves storing data and distribution to application programs and users, modifying it as necessary and monitoring the changes in the data and preventing the data from becoming damaged due to unexpected failure. It’s a component of a company’s total informational infrastructure that supports decision-making and growth for the business as well as compliance with laws such as the GDPR and the California Consumer Privacy Act.
In the 1960s, Charles Bachman and IBM among others came up with the first database systems. They evolved into the information management systems (IMS) which enabled the storage and retrieve huge amounts of information for a range of purposes, ranging from calculating inventory to supporting complex financial accounting and human resources functions.
A database is a collection of tables that organizes data in accordance with the specific scheme, for example one-to many relationships. It uses primary key to identify records and permits cross-references among tables. Each table contains a number of fields, also known as attributes, which provide information about the entities that comprise the data. The most well-known type of database that is currently in use is a relational model designed by E. F. “Ted” Codd at IBM in the 1970s. This model is based on normalizing the data, making it easier to use. It is also easier to update data since it does not require the changing of certain sections of the database.
Most DBMSs can support multiple types of databases, offering internal and external levels of organization. The internal level deals with costs, scalability, and other operational concerns like the design of the database’s physical storage. The external level is the representation of the database in user interfaces and applications. It can include a mixture of various external views based on different data models. It also can include virtual tables that are calculated using generic data to enhance the performance.